Why Pressure does not fit into General Relativity

In 1934 Milne and McCrea [Quart. J. Math.  5 (1934) 73-80] made a startling discovery that still is not fully resolved. In Harrison's [Cosmology (Cambridge U. P., 2000), 2nd ed. p.326] words: "Why should Newtonian theory and general relativity, when applied to a uniform universe, yield identical results? At best, Newtonian theory is only approximately true, and yet in this most unlikely of all applications it gives the correct result." Milne and McCrea derived the Friedmann-Lemaitre equations for the expansion rate of the universe at zero pressure.

Inflation: Mixing First and Second Order Phase Transitions

Cosmologists confuse first and second order phase transitions. They are, in fact, mutually exclusive. What is even worse is that if the early universe was expanding adiabatically, the product of the radius and temperature is an adiabatic invariant. In the two phase region the volume can be changed without changing the pressure. The pressure is a sole function of the temperature. The adiabatic condition destroys all this, and, hence, there can be no latent heat of condensation or evaporation.

 

Do Negative Heat Capacities Exist?

In a paper on negative heat capacities [Mon. Not. R. ast. Soc. 181 (1977), 405-419] Lynden-Bell and Lynden-Bell claim that "All astronomers know that when a star or a star cluster loses energy its temperature will increase in accordance with the virial theorem. Beckenstein [sic] & Hawking have demonstrated that black holes display the same phenomenon. Thus astronomical systems display negative specific heat." Then all astronomers would be wrong.

 

A Fundamental Flaw in Einstein’s Equations

It has long been observed that the pressure enters Einstein’s equations with the wrong sign. It would tend to increase the mass of a gravitating body rather than acting to oppose gravitational collapse. In other words, stellar equilibrium is maintained by an interior pressure that balances exactly the force of gravity, and, therefore, it cannot contribute to the mass it is trying to oppose from collapsing.

 

The Patchwork of the Fabric of the Universe and (Well) Hidden Reality

 

 

.

 

The Fabric of the Cosmos  and  The Hidden Reality: Parallel Universes and the Deep Laws of the Cosmos  are masterfully written tour de forces  in incomprehensibility that clearly uncover the incongruities of general relativity, inflationary cosmology, and black hole thermodynamics. This is entirely consonant with Fred Hoyle’s observation that the establishment defends itself by “complicating everything to the point of incomprehensibility.”

Is the Black Hole War Really a War Against Physics?

It is invariably getting more difficult for physics journals to distinguish among new and original research, rubbish, and stuff that would make no difference if it remained unpublished. A good example of the latter is string theory. It is not very difficult for a physicist to hide behind a veil of heavy mathematical formalism or technical jargon. But the veil comes down when he attempts to convince the public at large that his scientific ideas hold water.

 

Comments on the paper "Simplified derivation of the Hawking-Unruh temperature for an accelerated observer in vacuum"

Accelerations do not cause Doppler shifts. Lorentz transformations cannot be applied to non-inertial systems like uniform accelerating bodies. The Planck thermal factor has a coefficient for which the integral over all frequencies does not exist. Mean occupation number is confused with the expected energy because of the faulty prefactor of the Planck factor. Accelerations can be both positive and negative, but no so with the temperature. There are no negative temperatures. A thermometer cannot be a source of energy, and the acceleration of the thermometer cannot be proportional to the temperature that it measures. Both the Unruh and Hawking temperatures reduce to the Wien displacement law, with the added constraint on the Hawking temperature that the frequency be inversely proportional to the central mass. Higher temperatures, in the Pound-Rebka experiments, lead to smaller frequencies while large accelerations have no effect at all imply that clocks with higher rms velocities, caused by higher temperatures, run more slowly that those with lower rms velocities, or those with lower temperatures. This casts doubts on any relation between temperature and acceleration.
 

Why Planck's Radiation Law Cannot be Derived from an Exponential Redshift

An exponential redshift has been associated with the emergence of a temperature in the presence of a horizon [cf. T. Pandmanabhan, "Thermodynamical Aspects of Gravity: New Insights" arXiv:0911.5004] More specifically, it is the power spectrum whose amplitude is given by the Fourier transform of the exponential redshift when the temperature is given by the so-called Unruh temperature for which the acceleration of an observer is proportional to the absolute temperature. Suppose a light signal is sent out in time $t_1$ and received back in time $t_2$.