What Clocks are Used to Measure General Relativistic "Effects"?

Relativistic effects, which supposedly support General Relativity, are considered as small appendices added on to Newtonian motion. Eddington, in fact, describes Einstein's 'correction' to the elliptical orbit of Mercury by saying:

"the equation of the orbit in the usual form of particle dynamics. It differs from the Newtonian orbit by the small term, $3mu^2$ [$m$ is gravitational mass, $u$ is the inverse radius, in units where the speed of light is unity], which is easily shown to give the motion of the perihelion."

The Truth About the Classical Tests of General Relativity

Much ado has been made about the classical tests of general relativity. There was nothing before Einstein, and, after, all was light, and gravity for that matter. What to do about Soldner's analysis of the deflection of light by a massive body that preceded Einstein by a century? Or Gerber's calculation of the perihelion shift of Mercury, which again preceded Einstein by almost a decade?

What Does LIGO really Measure?

LIGO amounts to a Michelson interferometer with a time-varying index of refraction. Since the index of refraction is everywhere the same, there can be no change in wavelength, and, hence, there is no difference between the optical and geometrical path length. In an interferometer of length L there are $N_1=2L/\lambda_1$ wavelengths, since the laser beam makes (at least) two passes. With movable mirrors there will be other factors involved: e.g. radiation pressure, action-reaction, Doppler effect, etc. which neither LIGO no we will take into account.

Proof that the Gravitational Force Cannot Travel at the Speed of Light

Suppose that $v_g$ is the speed of propagation of the gravitational force, and $a_0$ be the initial semi-major at the initial time $t_0$ of an orbiting system. Celestial mechanics derives the following formula to compute the semi-major axis at any other time $t$,


It rate of change can be related to the rate of change of the angular velocity by the constraint placed by Kepler's law, $a^3\omega^2=\mbox{const}.$ Again, perturbation theory gives the rate of change of the period as

Grave Errors in the LIGO Mathematical Analysis of Gravitational Waves

The original "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger", that appeared in the February 2016 issue of Phys. Rev. Lett. is fraught with grave mistakes in the mathematical formulation, if it could be called that. In their paper, the LIGO team presents a single equation for the so-called 'chirp mass', and another equation in a caption for the "effective relative velocity given by the post-Newtonian parameter"

$$ (v/c)^3=GM\omega/c^3,$$

Einstein's Formula for Gravitational Wave Luminosity Predicts Gravitational Aberration

Until the recent 'sightings' of the collision of pairs of binary black holes, the only evidence for gravitational radiation came from the application of Einstein's formula for gravitational wave luminosity and the change in the rate of the orbit  of the pulsar PSR 1913+16 at a rate $dP/dt<10^{-12}$, equivalent to $<10\mu s/yr$ When Hulse first discovered PSR 1913+16, he found that the pulsar's period decreased by as much as $80 \mu s$ in one day.