It Takes Two to Tango: The Decline of Observer-Physics

The velocity $v$ seems innocuous enough. But, it has been the seat of many a misunderstanding. In fact, Einstein introduced his theory of special relativity to emphasize the fact that the ultimate velocity is the speed of light, $c$. The position of a body moving from point $x=0$ at $t=0$ along the $x$-axis is simply $x=vt$. That is, we measure $x$ and $t$ and obtain the velocity as $v=x/t$.

Does Gravity Need a Maxwellian Foundation?

The Ampere-Neumann-Weber theory of electrodynamics describes the mutual interaction of current elements or between moving charges that would account for phenomena like that of induction and radiation. Ampere's force is action-at-a-distance and is the antithesis of Maxwell's circuit equations that describe the propagation of electrodynamic fields. In order to apply the latter to material systems one needs an expression for the force that these fields exert on matter.

Weber's Electromagnetic Theory As an Optical Gravitational Theory

Weber's electrodynamics fell out of favor in the later half of the nineteenth century thanks to Maxwell's field theory. The distinction between the two is that the former predicts a pondermotive force between current elements whereas the later gives an electrodynamic force. The former produces a longitudinal force along the radius vector connecting the two elements while the latter produces a transverse force that acts normal to the direction of propagation.

What Clocks are Used to Measure General Relativistic "Effects"?

Relativistic effects, which supposedly support General Relativity, are considered as small appendices added on to Newtonian motion. Eddington, in fact, describes Einstein's 'correction' to the elliptical orbit of Mercury by saying:

"the equation of the orbit in the usual form of particle dynamics. It differs from the Newtonian orbit by the small term, $3mu^2$ [$m$ is gravitational mass, $u$ is the inverse radius, in units where the speed of light is unity], which is easily shown to give the motion of the perihelion."

The Truth About the Classical Tests of General Relativity

Much ado has been made about the classical tests of general relativity. There was nothing before Einstein, and, after, all was light, and gravity for that matter. What to do about Soldner's analysis of the deflection of light by a massive body that preceded Einstein by a century? Or Gerber's calculation of the perihelion shift of Mercury, which again preceded Einstein by almost a decade?

What Does LIGO really Measure?

LIGO amounts to a Michelson interferometer with a time-varying index of refraction. Since the index of refraction is everywhere the same, there can be no change in wavelength, and, hence, there is no difference between the optical and geometrical path length. In an interferometer of length L there are $N_1=2L/\lambda_1$ wavelengths, since the laser beam makes (at least) two passes. With movable mirrors there will be other factors involved: e.g. radiation pressure, action-reaction, Doppler effect, etc. which neither LIGO no we will take into account.

Proof that the Gravitational Force Cannot Travel at the Speed of Light

Suppose that $v_g$ is the speed of propagation of the gravitational force, and $a_0$ be the initial semi-major at the initial time $t_0$ of an orbiting system. Celestial mechanics derives the following formula to compute the semi-major axis at any other time $t$,


It rate of change can be related to the rate of change of the angular velocity by the constraint placed by Kepler's law, $a^3\omega^2=\mbox{const}.$ Again, perturbation theory gives the rate of change of the period as